Acoustic Neuroma Association
600 Peachtree Parkway
Suite 108
Cumming, GA 30041

Keywords

ACOUSTIC
pertaining to hearing

ACOUSTIC NEUROMA (AN)
benign tumor of the eighth cranial nerve

ACOUSTIC NEUROMA ASSOCIATION OF CANADA (ANAC)
a registered non-profit organization in Canada with similar purposes to ANA

AUDIOGRAM
a chart of hearing acuity recorded during hearing tests

AUDIOLOGIST
a medical professional who assesses and manages hearing and balance-related disorders

AUDIOVESTIBULAR SPECIALIST
a medical professional specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing, balance and communication problems, including tinnitus

AUDITORY BRAINSTEM IMPLANT (ABI)
a type of hearing device that bypasses the cochlea in the middle ear and the auditory nerve and is implanted in the brainstem

BENIGN
not malignant, non-cancerous: does not invade surrounding tissue or spread to other parts of the body

BILATERAL
pertaining to both sides of the body

BONE ANCHORED HEARING AID
a hearing device that works through bone conduction with a sound processor attached to a small titanium implant

The sound processor is placed on the deaf side, behind the ear and sound is transferred through the bone of the skull, stimulating the cochlea in the hearing ear. The brain is then able to distinguish between the sounds that it receives from the deaf side, via this system, from the sound that it receives directly from the hearing ear. This ultimately results in the sensation of hearing from the deaf side.

BRAINSTEM
connects the upper brain to the spinal cord; is less than three inches long

BRITISH ACOUSTIC NEUROMA ASSOCIATION (BANA)
a registered charity organization in the United Kingdom that is dedicated to promoting the exchange of mutual support and information among individuals affected by acoustic neuromas, with similiar purposes to ANA

CENTIMETER (cm)
.394 inch (2.54 cm equals one inch) - ten millimeters equal one centimeter

CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE
space bounded by the petrous bone, brainstem, and cerebellum, and through which cranial nerves 6-11 pass

CEREBELLUM
located behind the brainstem, extending from the brainstem out toward each mastoid bone; carries 11% of the brain's weight and controls muscular coordination

COCHLEAR IMPLANT (CI)
CI is a small, electronic device that is implanted within the inner ear to increase hearing capabilities.  Cochlear implants may be helpful when the patient has significant hearing loss in both ears.  The cochlear nerve and blood supply must be intact on the CI side - often not the case for post-treatment AN patients.  CIs compensate for damaged or non-working parts of the inner ear, finds useful sounds and sends them to the brain.

CRANIAL NERVES
control the sensory and muscle functions around the eyes, face and throat- There are two sets each of twelve cranial nerves, one set for each side of the body.

CROS HEARING AID
Contralateral Routing of Sound - used with one-sided deafness. It receives sound on the deaf side, amplifies it, and carries it to the good ear.

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)
a watery fluid, continuously being produced and absorbed, which flows in the ventricles (cavities) within the brain and around the surface of the brain and spinal cord

COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY (CT SCAN)
X-ray test which creates a cross-sectional picture of any part of the body - can distinguish among tissue, fluid, fat and bone

CYBERKNIFE (CK)
a robotic radiosurgery system that delivers multiple beams of radiation, used to treat benign tumors and cancers and other medical conditions located anywhere in the body in multiple sessions

EAR, NOSE AND THROAT (ENT) PHYSICIAN
also called an otolaryngologist, a physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the head and neck, especially those involving the ears, nose and throat

ELECTRONYSTAGMOGRAM (ENG)
a recording of the eye movements, usually done to confirm the presence of involuntary eye movements; can also be done in cases of vertigo to determine if there is damage to the vestibular portion of the acoustic nerve or in cases of possible acoustic neuroma

FRACTIONATED STEREOTACTIC RADIATION (FSR)
any focused radiation treatment that requires more than one treatment delivery session

GADOLINIUM
a contrast material given at the time of MRI which concentrates in the tumor and makes it more visible

GAMMA KNIFE (GK)
a radiosurgical machine that contains 201 separate radioactive cobalt sources; gamma rays from each source are focused together at the tumor

INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY (IMRT)
an advanced mode of high-precision radiotherapy that utilizes computer-controlled linear accelerators to deliver precise radiation doses to a tumor or specific areas within the tumor

INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL (IAC)
a short auditory canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, part of the base of the skull that extends from the ear towards the center of the head, through which pass the vestibulocochlear and facial neves

LINAC
a radiosurgical machine that produces x-rays electronically

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
a technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within the body

MIDDLE FOSSA
surgical approach to an acoustic neuroma primarily used for the purpose of hearing preservation

MILLIMETER (MM)
a metric  unit of measure; 10mm=1cm

NEUROFIBROMATOSIS (NF)
a familial condition characterized by developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin - the central form (Neurofibromatosis 2 - NF2) may produce bilateral acoustic neuromas

NEUROMA
benign growth originating on a nerve

NEUROTOLOGIST
a physician specializing in the neurological aspects of the auditory and vestibular apparatus

NEUROSURGEON
a physician with a surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system

OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (OTO)
a physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment (including surgery) of head and neck disorders, especially those involving the ear, nose and throat (ENT)

OTOLOGIST
a physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of ear disorder only.

PONS
located at the base of the brain in front of the cerebellum, this section of the cranium is a mass of nerve tissue which coordinates the activities of the various lobes of the brain

POSTERIOR FOSSA
the cavity in the back part of the skull which contains the cerebellum, brainstem and cranial nerves 5-12

PROTON RADIATION
a therapy using protons, a positively charged particle, to treat AN

RADIOSURGERY (STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY - SRS)
a treatment consisting of a single session of radiation treatment

RADIOTHERAPY (RT)
a treatment consisting of multiple sessions of radiation treatment

RETROSIGMOID/SUB-OCCIPITAL
a surgical approach for AN where an opening in the cranium behind the mastoid, close to the back of the head is used for access

SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS (SNHL)
deafness caused by failure of the acoustic nerve

SUDDEN SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS (SSHL)
a rapid loss of hearing that requires medical attention

SHUNT
a tube implanted in the cranium to balance the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and used in the treatment of hydrocephalus

TINNITUS
a common symptom of AN patients, a noise produced in the inner ear, such as ringing, buzzing, roaring, clicking, etc.

TRANSLABYRINTHINE
a surgical approach for AN where the mastoid bone and the bone in the inner ear (labyrinthine) are removed to access the tumor; this approach results in complete hearing loss on the tumor side

UNILATERAL
involving only one side

VERTIGO
a sensation of dizziness and loss of balance, associated particularly with looking down from a great height, or caused by disease affecting the inner ear or the vestibular nerve

VESTIBULAR
associated with the balance system

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