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Acoustic Neuroma Keywords

ACOUSTIC Pertaining to hearing.
ACOUSTIC NEUROMA (AN) Benign tumor of the eighth cranial nerve.
ACOUSTIC NEUROMA ASSOCIATION OF CANADA (ANAC) The Acoustic Neuroma Association of Canada, a registered non-profit organization in Canada, is a peer support group with similar purposes to ANA.
AUDIOGRAM A chart of hearing acuity recorded during hearing tests.
AUDIOLOGIST A medical professional who assesses and manages hearing and balance related disorders.
AUDIOVESTIBULAR SPECIALIST A medical professional specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of hearing, balance and communication problems, including tinnitus.
AUDITORY BRAINSTEM IMPLANT (ABI) A type of hearing device that bypassess the cochlea in the middle ear and the auditory nerve and is implanted in the brainstem.  The ABI does not require the prescence of the cochlear nerve or blood supply.
BENIGN Not malignant, non-cancerous.  Does not invade surrounding tissue or spread to other parts of the body.
BILATERAL Pertaining to both sides of the body.
BONE ANCHORED HEARING AID (BAHA) A hearing device for persons who are single-side deaf which works through bone conduction with a sound processor attached to a small titanium implant.  The sound processor is placed on the deaf side, behind the ear and sound is transferred through the bone of the skull, stimulating the cochlea in the hearing ear.  The brain is then able to distinguish between the sounds that it receives from the deaf side, via the Baha system, from the sound that it receives directly from the hearing ear.  This ultimately results in the sensation of hearing from the deaf side.  The name Baha® is a registered trademark of Cochlear Americas.
BRAINSTEM Connects the upper brain to the spinal cord - less than three inches (7.6 cm) long.  The pons is one part of the brainstem which may be compressed by acoustic neuromas.
BRITISH ACOUSTIC NEUROMA ASSOCIATION (BANA) The British Acoustic Neuroma Association (BANA) is an international, registered charity organization in the United Kingdom, that is dedicated to promoting the exchange of mutual support and information among individuals affected by acoustic neuromas, with similiar purposes to ANA.
CENTIMETER (cm) .394 inch (2.54 cm equals one inch) - Ten millimeters equal one centimeter.
CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE Space bounded by the petrous bone, brainstem, and cerebellum, and through which cranial nerves six (VI), seven (VII), eight (VIII), nine (IX), ten (X) and eleven (XI) pass.
CEREBELLUM Located behind the brainstem, extending from the brainstem out toward each mastoid bone. It carries 11% of the brain's weight and controls muscular coordination.
COCHLEAR IMPLANT (CI) Cochlear implants are indicated when the patient has significant hearing loss in both ears.  In addition, the ear to be implanted must still have the cochlear nerve and blood supply intact.  Unfortunately, this is often not the case in patients with acoustic neuromas because the of the size of the tumor or treatment with radiation and/or surgery.  However, some patients after tumor removal have some remaining hearing, and then they lose hearing in the other ear.  It is a small complex electronic device that is implanted within the inner ear to increase hearing capabilities.  Whereas hearing aids amplify sound, cochlear implants compensate for damaged or non-working parts of the inner ear.  A cochlear implant electronically finds useful sounds and then sends them to the brain.
CRANIAL NERVES The cranial nerves control the sensory and muscle functions around the eyes, face and throat. There are two sets each of twelve cranial nerves. Each set involves one side of the body.
CROS HEARING AID Contralateral Routing of Sound - A CROS aid is used with one-sided deafness. It receives sound on the deaf side, amplifies it, and carries it to the good ear.
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) A watery fluid, continuously being produced and absorbed, which flows in the ventricles (cavities) within the brain and around the surface of the brain and spinal cord.
COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY (CT SCAN) A special X-ray test which creates a cross-sectional picture of any part of the body. This X-ray can distinguish among tissue, fluid, fat and bone, and, after intravenous injection of a dye, will show an acoustic neuroma unless the tumor is very small.
CYBERKNIFE (CK) A robotic radiosurgery system that delivers multiple beams of radiation, used to treat benign tumors and cancers and other medical conditions located anywhere in the body.  It consists of a linear accelerator and a robotic arm, delivered in multiple sessions.
EAR, NOSE AND THROAT (ENT) PHYSICIAN A physician specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the head and neck, especially those involving the ears, nose and throat (ENT).  Also called an Otolaryngologist.
ELECTRONYSTAGMOGRAM (ENG) A recording of the eye movements, usually done to confirm the presence of involuntary eye movements but can also be done in cases of vertigo to determine if there is damage to the vestibular portion of the acoustic nerve or in cases of possible acoustic neuroma.
FRACTIONATED STEREOTACTIC RADIATION (FSR) Fractionated stereotactic radiation refers to any focused radiation treatment that requires more than one treatment delivery session. Several different dosing schedules are available.
GADOLINIUM A contrast material given at the time of MRI which concentrates in the tumor and makes it more visible.
GAMMA KNIFE (GK) The Gamma Knife is a radiosurgical machine that contains 201 separate radioactive cobalt sources. The radiation beams from each source (gamma rays) are focused together at the tumor.
INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION THERAPY (IMRT) Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an advanced mode of high-precision radiotherapy that utilizes computer-controlled linear accelerators to deliver precise radiation doeses to a tumor or specific areas within the tumor.
INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL (IAC) A short auditory canal in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, part of the base of the skull that extends from the ear towards the center of the head, through which pass the vestibulocochlear and facial neves.
LINAC Linear accelerator is a radiosurgical machine that produces radiation electronically. These radiation beams are called X-rays. LINACs are also commonly used for conventional radiation treatment of tumors elsewhere in the body.
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) A body imaging system employing a magnet which surrounds the patient. A magnetic field causes small harmless movement of the atoms in the area of the body being studied. A low energy radio wave is then passed through the same area and the small change this imparts to the atoms in the magnetic field causes signals to be emitted which are picked up and analyzed by modern computer technology. An image of the tissue is produced in clear detail. Copies of MRI's are available to patients.
MIDDLE FOSSA Surgical approach to an acoustic neuroma primarily used for the purpose of hearing preservation.
MILLIMETER (MM) A metric system unit of measure.  10 mm = 1 cm
NEUROFIBROMATOSIS (NF) A familial condition characterized by developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin - the central form (Neurofibromatosis 2 - NF2) may produce bilateral acoustic neuromas.
NEUROMA Benign growth originating on a nerve.
NEUROTOLOGIST A physician specializing in the neurological aspects of the auditory and vestibular apparatus.
NEUROSURGEON A physician with a surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (OTO) A physician that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment (including surgery) of head and neck disorders, especially those involving the ear, nose and throat (ENT).
OTOLOGIST An ENT physician that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear disorder only.
PEACOCK RADIATION The Peacock device is an attachment to the LINAC radiosurgery system that allows complex radiation beam shapes to be generated.
PONS Located at the base of the brain in front of the cerebellum. This section of the cranium is a mass of nerve tissue which coordinates the activities of the various lobes of the brain.
POSTERIOR FOSSA The cavity in the back part of the skull which contains the cerebellum, brainstem and cranial nerves 5-12.
PROTON RADIATION Proton radiation differs from the photon radiation produced by both the Gamma Knife and LINAC systems.  Proton beams have a unique physical property that allows them to be sharply focused within a tumor.  They are theoretically advantageous for radiosurgery treatment.
RADIOSURGERY (STEREOTACTIC RADIOSURGERY - SRS) A technique based on the principle that a single or fractionated dose of radiation delivered precisely to a small area will arrest or kill the tumor, while minimizing injury to surrounding nerves and brain tissue and/or function. Typically this is performed in a single session.
RADIOTHERAPY (RT) Typically, a radiation treatment delivered over an extended period of time with multiple doses.
RETROSIGMOID/SUB-OCCIPITAL A surgical approach to an acoustic neuroma creating an opening in the cranium behind the mastoid part of the ear.
SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS (SNHL) Deafness caused by failure of the acoustic nerve.
SUDDEN SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS (SSHL) A rapid loss of hearing that can happen all at once or over a period of up to 3 days.  It should be considered a medical emergency and anyone experiencing SSHL should visit a doctor immediately.
SHUNT A tube implanted in the cranium to balance the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and used in the treatment of hydrocephalus.
TINNITUS A noise produced in the inner ear, such as ringing, buzzing, roaring, clicking, etc.
TRANSLABYRINTHINE A surgical approach to an acoustic neuroma through the mastoid bone and inner ear (labyrinthine).
UNILATERAL Involving only one side.
VERTIGO Dizziness - a symptom sometimes caused by an acoustic neuroma.
VESTIBULAR Associated with the balance system.

Acoustic Neuroma Introduction

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